Netplan configuration examples

Below are a collection of example netplan configurations for common scenarios. If you see a scenario missing or have one to contribute, please file a bug against this documentation with the example using the links at the bottom of this page. Thank you!

Configuration

To configure netplan, save configuration files under /etc/netplan/ with a .yaml extension (e.g. /etc/netplan/config.yaml), then run sudo netplan apply. This command parses and applies the configuration to the system. Configuration written to disk under /etc/netplan/ will persist between reboots.

Using DHCP and static addressing

To let the interface named ‘enp3s0’ get an address via DHCP, create a YAML file with the following:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
      dhcp4: true

To instead set a static IP address, use the addresses key, which takes a list of (IPv4 or IPv6), addresses along with the subnet prefix length (e.g. /24). Gateway and DNS information can be provided as well:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
      addresses:
        - 10.10.10.2/24
      gateway4: 10.10.10.1
      nameservers:
          search: [mydomain, otherdomain]
          addresses: [10.10.10.1, 1.1.1.1]

Connecting multiple interfaces with DHCP

Many systems now include more than one network interface. Servers will commonly need to connect to multiple networks, and may require that traffic to the Internet goes through a specific interface despite all of them providing a valid gateway.

One can achieve the exact routing desired over DHCP by specifying a metric for the routes retrieved over DHCP, which will ensure some routes are preferred over others. In this example, ‘enred’ is preferred over ‘engreen’, as it has a lower route metric:

network:
  version: 2
  ethernets:
    enred:
      dhcp4: yes
      dhcp4-overrides:
        route-metric: 100
    engreen:
      dhcp4: yes
      dhcp4-overrides:
        route-metric: 200

Connecting to an open wireless network

Netplan easily supports connecting to an open wireless network (one that is not secured by a password), only requiring that the access point is defined:

network:
  version: 2
  wifis:
    wl0:
      access-points:
        opennetwork: {}
      dhcp4: yes

Connecting to a WPA Personal wireless network

Wireless devices use the ‘wifis’ key and share the same configuration options with wired ethernet devices. The wireless access point name and password should also be specified:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  wifis:
    wlp2s0b1:
      dhcp4: no
      dhcp6: no
      addresses: [192.168.0.21/24]
      gateway4: 192.168.0.1
      nameservers:
        addresses: [192.168.0.1, 8.8.8.8]
      access-points:
        "network_ssid_name":
          password: "**********"

Connecting to WPA Enterprise wireless networks

It is also common to find wireless networks secured using WPA or WPA2 Enterprise, which requires additional authentication parameters.

For example, if the network is secured using WPA-EAP and TTLS:

network:
  version: 2
  wifis:
    wl0:
      access-points:
        workplace:
          auth:
            key-management: eap
            method: ttls
            anonymous-identity: "@internal.example.com"
            identity: "joe@internal.example.com"
            password: "v3ryS3kr1t"
      dhcp4: yes

Or, if the network is secured using WPA-EAP and TLS:

network:
  version: 2
  wifis:
    wl0:
      access-points:
        university:
          auth:
            key-management: eap
            method: tls
            anonymous-identity: "@cust.example.com"
            identity: "cert-joe@cust.example.com"
            ca-certificate: /etc/ssl/cust-cacrt.pem
            client-certificate: /etc/ssl/cust-crt.pem
            client-key: /etc/ssl/cust-key.pem
            client-key-password: "d3cryptPr1v4t3K3y"
      dhcp4: yes

Many different modes of encryption are supported. See the Netplan reference page.

Using multiple addresses on a single interface

The addresses key can take a list of addresses to assign to an interface:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
     addresses:
       - 10.100.1.38/24
       - 10.100.1.39/24
     gateway4: 10.100.1.1

Interface aliases (e.g. eth0:0) are not supported.

Using multiple addresses with multiple gateways

Similar to the example above, interfaces with multiple addresses can be configured with multiple gateways.

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
     addresses:
       - 9.0.0.9/24
       - 10.0.0.10/24
       - 11.0.0.11/24
     #gateway4:    # unset, since we configure routes below
     routes:
       - to: 0.0.0.0/0
         via: 9.0.0.1
         metric: 100
       - to: 0.0.0.0/0
         via: 10.0.0.1
         metric: 100
       - to: 0.0.0.0/0
         via: 11.0.0.1
         metric: 100

Given that there are multiple addresses, each with their own gateway, we do not specify gateway4 here, and instead configure individual routes to 0.0.0.0/0 (everywhere) using the address of the gateway for the subnet. The metric value should be adjusted so the routing happens as expected.

DHCP can be used to receive one of the IP addresses for the interface. In this case, the default route for that address will be automatically configured with a metric value of 100. As a short-hand for an entry under routes, gateway4 can be set to the gateway address for one of the subnets. In that case, the route for that subnet can be omitted from routes. Its metric will be set to 100.

Using Network Manager as a renderer

Netplan supports both networkd and Network Manager as backends. You can specify which network backend should be used to configure particular devices by using the renderer key. You can also delegate all configuration of the network to Network Manager itself by specifying only the renderer key:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: NetworkManager

Configuring interface bonding

Bonding is configured by declaring a bond interface with a list of physical interfaces and a bonding mode. Below is an example of an active-backup bond that uses DHCP to obtain an address:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  bonds:
    bond0:
      dhcp4: yes
      interfaces:
        - enp3s0
        - enp4s0
      parameters:
        mode: active-backup
        primary: enp3s0

Below is an example of a system acting as a router with various bonded interfaces and different types. Note the ‘optional: true’ key declarations that allow booting to occur without waiting for those interfaces to activate fully.

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp1s0:
      dhcp4: no
    enp2s0:
      dhcp4: no
    enp3s0:
      dhcp4: no
      optional: true
    enp4s0:
      dhcp4: no
      optional: true
    enp5s0:
      dhcp4: no
      optional: true
    enp6s0:
      dhcp4: no
      optional: true
  bonds:
    bond-lan:
      interfaces: [enp2s0, enp3s0]
      addresses: [192.168.93.2/24]
      parameters:
        mode: 802.3ad
        mii-monitor-interval: 1
    bond-wan:
      interfaces: [enp1s0, enp4s0]
      addresses: [192.168.1.252/24]
      gateway4: 192.168.1.1
      nameservers:
        search: [local]
        addresses: [8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4]
      parameters:
        mode: active-backup
        mii-monitor-interval: 1
        gratuitious-arp: 5
    bond-conntrack:
      interfaces: [enp5s0, enp6s0]
      addresses: [192.168.254.2/24]
      parameters:
        mode: balance-rr
        mii-monitor-interval: 1

Configuring network bridges

To create a very simple bridge consisting of a single device that uses DHCP, write:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
      dhcp4: no
  bridges:
    br0:
      dhcp4: yes
      interfaces:
        - enp3s0

A more complex example, to get libvirtd to use a specific bridge with a tagged vlan, while continuing to provide an untagged interface as well would involve:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp0s25:
      dhcp4: true
  bridges:
    br0:
      addresses: [ 10.3.99.25/24 ]
      interfaces: [ vlan15 ]
  vlans:
    vlan15:
      accept-ra: no
      id: 15
      link: enp0s25

Then libvirtd would be configured to use this bridge by adding the following content to a new XML file under /etc/libvirtd/qemu/networks/. The name of the bridge in the tag as well as in need to match the name of the bridge device configured using netplan:

<network>
  <name>br0</name>
  <bridge name='br0'/>
  <forward mode="bridge"/>
</network>

Attaching VLANs to network interfaces

To configure multiple VLANs with renamed interfaces:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    mainif:
      match:
        macaddress: "de:ad:be:ef:ca:fe"
      set-name: mainif
      addresses: [ "10.3.0.5/23" ]
      gateway4: 10.3.0.1
      nameservers:
        addresses: [ "8.8.8.8", "8.8.4.4" ]
        search: [ example.com ]
  vlans:
    vlan15:
      id: 15
      link: mainif
      addresses: [ "10.3.99.5/24" ]
    vlan10:
      id: 10
      link: mainif
      addresses: [ "10.3.98.5/24" ]
      nameservers:
        addresses: [ "127.0.0.1" ]
        search: [ domain1.example.com, domain2.example.com ]

Reaching a directly connected gateway

This allows setting up a default route, or any route, using the “on-link” keyword where the gateway is an IP address that is directly connected to the network even if the address does not match the subnet configured on the interface.

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    addresses: [ "10.10.10.1/24" ]
    routes:
      - to: 0.0.0.0/0
        via: 9.9.9.9
        on-link: true

Configuring source routing

Route tables can be added to particular interfaces to allow routing between two networks:

In the example below, ens3 is on the 192.168.3.0/24 network and ens5 is on the 192.168.5.0/24 network. This enables clients on either network to connect to the other and allow the response to come from the correct interface.

Furthermore, the default route is still assigned to ens5 allowing any other traffic to go through it.

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    ens3:
      addresses:
       - 192.168.3.30/24
      dhcp4: no
      routes:
       - to: 192.168.3.0/24
         via: 192.168.3.1
         table: 101
      routing-policy:
       - from: 192.168.3.0/24
         table: 101
    ens5:
      addresses:
       - 192.168.5.24/24
      dhcp4: no
      gateway4: 192.168.5.1
      routes:
       - to: 192.168.5.0/24
         via: 192.168.5.1
         table: 102
      routing-policy:
        - from: 192.168.5.0/24
          table: 102

Configuring a loopback interface

Networkd does not allow creating new loopback devices, but a user can add new addresses to the standard loopback interface, lo, in order to have it considered a valid address on the machine as well as for custom routing:

network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    lo:
      match:
        name: lo
      addresses: [ 7.7.7.7/32 ]

Integration with a Windows DHCP Server

For networks where DHCP is provided by a Windows Server using the dhcp-identifier key allows for interoperability:

network:
  version: 2
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
      dhcp4: yes
      dhcp-identifier: mac

Connecting an IP tunnel

Tunnels allow an administrator to extend networks across the Internet by configuring two endpoints that will connect a special tunnel interface and do the routing required. Netplan supports SIT, GRE, IP-in-IP (ipip, ipip6, ip6ip6), IP6GRE, VTI and VTI6 tunnels.

A common use of tunnels is to enable IPv6 connectivity on networks that only support IPv4. The example below show how such a tunnel might be configured.

Here, 1.1.1.1 is the client’s own IP address; 2.2.2.2 is the remote server’s IPv4 address, “2001:dead:beef::2/64” is the client’s IPv6 address as defined by the tunnel, and “2001:dead:beef::1” is the remote server’s IPv6 address.

Finally, “2001:cafe:face::1/64” is an address for the client within the routed IPv6 prefix:

network:
  version: 2
  ethernets:
    eth0:
      addresses:
        - 1.1.1.1/24
        - "2001:cafe:face::1/64"
      gateway4: 1.1.1.254
  tunnels:
    he-ipv6:
      mode: sit
      remote: 2.2.2.2
      local: 1.1.1.1
      addresses:
        - "2001:dead:beef::2/64"
      gateway6: "2001:dead:beef::1"